High-Quality Titanium Item

Pure titanium materials’ characteristics and applications


There are many Grades of titanium and titanium alloys, the industrially pure titanium TA1, TA2, and TA3 correspond to American standards Gr1, Gr2, and Gr3. What we generally call “PURE TITNAIUM” refers to industrially pure titanium. The performance of different Grade of pure titanium or titanium alloys may vary greatly. This article mainly discusses the properties and applications of three types of industrially pure titanium (Gr1, Gr2, Gr3).

# Difference between industrially pure titanium and chemically pure titanium

The difference between industrially pure titanium and chemically pure titanium is that it contains more oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and a variety of other impurity elements (such as iron, silicon, etc.). It is actually a titanium alloy with low alloy content. Compared with chemically pure titanium, its strength is greatly improved because it contains more impurity elements. Its mechanical properties and chemical properties are similar to stainless steel (but compared with titanium alloys, its strength is still lower).

#Characteristics of industrially pure titanium

The industrially pure titanium has a silvery white metallic luster. The density is 4.51g·cm^-3, which is the heaviest among light metals. Melting point (1668±10)℃, boiling point 3260℃. The melting point is higher than iron and nickel. The strength is not high, but the plasticity is good, easy to process and form, and has good stamping, welding, cutting, and processing properties; it has good corrosion resistance in the atmosphere, seawater, wet chlorine, and oxidizing, neutral, and weakly reducing media.

#Differences between three Grades of industrially pure titanium

The main difference between Gr1 and Gr2 is the content of iron, oxygen, and nitrogen. Because the content of the above elements is different, the strength also varies greatly, especially the oxygen content. A difference of 0.01% in oxygen content will cause about a strength difference of tens of MPa. Therefore, there are some differences in subsequent processing performance. But for the corrosion resistance of the material, the two are almost equivalent. Generally speaking, pure titanium Gr1 and Gr2 are basically used in various working conditions where the temperature is -253~250℃ and the stress is not large. Gr3 is stronger than Gr2 and Gr1, with similar ductility but slightly worse formability, but its mechanical properties are higher than those of Gr2 and Gr1.

#Applications of the three Grades of industrially pure titanium


Gr1 is the first of four industriallyly pure titanium grades. It is the softest and most malleable of these grades. It offers maximum formability, excellent corrosion resistance and high impact toughness. Because of all these qualities, Gr1 is the preferred material for any application that requires ease of forming, and is often used to manufacture titanium plates and tubes. These application industries include:

  • Chemical processing
  • Chlorate manufacturing
  • Dimensionally stable anode
  • Desalination
  • Architecture
  • Medical industry
  • Marine industry
  • Auto parts
  • Body structure

# Gr2

The pure titanium commonly used in industry is Gr2, because Gr2 has moderate corrosion resistance and comprehensive mechanical properties. Due to its versatility and wide availability, Gr2 is known as the “Workhorse” of the industrually pure titanium. It has many of the same qualities as Gr1 grade titanium, but is stronger. Both are equally resistant to corrosion, and this grade offers good weldability, strength, ductility and formability. This makes Gr2 grade titanium rods and plates the first choice for many applications:

  • Architecture
  • Power generation
  • Medical industry
  • Hydrocarbon processing
  • Marine industry
  • Exhaust pipe cover
  • Body skin
  • Desalination
  • Chemical processing
  • Chlorate manufacturing


Gr3 is the least used grade of industriallyly pure titanium, but that does not make it any less valuable. Gr3 grade is stronger than Gr1 grade and Gr2 grade, has similar ductility and slightly worse formability, but it has higher mechanical properties than its Gr1 and Gr2. Gr3 is used in applications requiring moderate strength and primary corrosion resistance. These include:

  • Aerospace structures
  • Chemical treatment
  • Medical industry
  • Marine industry

To sum up, you can choose different Grades of titanium materials according to your needs. Shanghai Fuente Industry Co., Ltd. supplies two series of products, titanium fasteners and titanium outdoor products. If there are products you are interested in, please leave a message to us or contact us for inquiries.

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